Tag Archives: policies

Open Source Software Adds to Collaboration, Transparency and Reproducibility in Archaeology

Author: Pablo Markin
Published Online: 2017-11-30
URL: http://openscience.com/open-source-software-contributes-to-project-collaboration-research-transparency-and-reproducibility-in-archeology/

A recent empirical study by Néhémie Strupler and Toby C. Wilkinson demonstrates that openly accessible digital tools, such as open-source Git and R platforms, can increase the transparency of archaeological fieldwork, while adding methodological rigor to its procedures.


Excerpt

While archaeology as a science is associated with limitations to the open dissemination, controlled reproduction and independent validation of its findings, the principles of Open Science, as Strupler and Wilkinson argue in their research article published in October 2017 in the Open Access journal Open Archaeology, can contribute to the mitigation of these methodology shortcomings this discipline has. Given that archaeological studies frequently reuse previous findings, engage in comparative research and rely on cross-validation by other scholars operating in this field of inquiry, closed access to extant literature creates barriers to the advancement of archaeology.

Nevertheless, archeologists have been reluctant to adopt Open Access and Open Data, due to their concerns over intellectual property rights, low incentives for primary data sharing and limited author attribution possibilities. Moreover, in this discipline Open Access has been making limited inroads, because it increases the degree of peer and public scrutiny that publications attract, may demand additional due diligence concerning research ethics, e.g., in relation to heritage protection, and can trigger undesired publicity, if findings relate to politically sensitive topics. However, under the impact of governmental policies and funder mandates, archaeological researchers increasingly opt for Open Access and Open Data, while making efforts to establish good practice standards, develop analytical reproducibility procedures for their respective findings and keep track of multiple-format data that fieldwork generates for subsequent storage, reuse and sharing.

By Pablo Markin


The full-length original blog article and additional resources can be found at OpenScience blog.

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Richard Thaler, Nobel Prize-Related Economics Award Winner, has also Advocated in Favor of Open Data Access

Author: Pablo Markin
Published Online: 2017-10-15
URL: http://openscience.com/richard-thaler-nobel-prize-related-economics-award-winner-has-also-advocated-in-favor-of-open-data-access/

While upon his 2017 prize nomination, Richard H. Thaler has received recognition for his contributions to behavioral economics, he has also argued that open data initiatives can bring public and private benefits alike.


Excerpt

On October 9, 2017, the University of Chicago Booth School of Business has announced that Richard H. Thaler, its Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of Behavioral Science and Economics, has received the vaunted 2017 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. This award has celebrated Thaler’s work in behavioral economics that takes account of the non-rationality of economic agents, due to human biases. While his economic behavior scenarios have served as the foundation for his book-scale publications, such as Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness (2008; co-authored with Cass R. Sunstein) and Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics (2015), in his smaller-scale publications Thaler has also advocated that Open Access to governmental, organizational and user data can be of significant utility for individual and collective decision-makers, precisely because more often than not economic agents act counterintuitively.

In other words, the ability of public policies to arrive at optimal decisions and realize cost efficiencies is likely to critically depend on the availability in Open Access of behavioral data based on which incentives can be devised and fine-tuned. Thus, in his article that has appeared in The New York Times on March 12, 2011, Thaler has called on governments to allow for Open Access to the data that their various agencies collect so that private companies and individual consumers would be able to tap into that information to deliver optimized services, such as real-time traffic tracking solutions, and make smarter decisions, e.g., based on service provider price registries, respectively. These uses of open data can also contribute to higher levels of consumer market competition and product safety transparency with public and private benefits in the form of improved resource allocation efficiency and reduced damage and mortality rates due to accidents.

By Pablo Markin


The full-length original blog article and additional resources can be found at OpenScience blog.

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Asian Countries Demonstrate a Strong Presence of Open Access Policies, Repositories and Journals

Author: Pablo Markin
Published Online: 2017-09-17
URL: http://openscience.com/asian-countries-demonstrate-a-strong-presence-of-open-access-policies-repositories-and-journals/

As a latest survey shows, in Asia Open Access enjoys robust state and institutional support for repositories, consortia memberships and article processing charges funds.


Excerpt

In their recent survey of Open Access activities in Asia conducted on behalf of the Confederation of Open Access Repositories published in June, 2017, Kathleen Shearer, Kostas Repanas and Kazu Yamaji have put Open Access policies in the context of the rapidly growing scientific profile that Asian countries have, which, according to the 2015 UNESCO World Science Report have their share of global economic output match their proportion of world’s research and development spending standing at 45% and 42% respectively. As China is poised to become a global leader in the number of scientific research articles published in short order, an increase in the coherence of Open Access practices, funding, and policies backed by both institutional and technological infrastructures across Asian states is likely to have far-reaching consequences both regionally and globally.

Yet, at present 50% out of Asian countries surveyed, e.g., Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, have no Open Access funding policies, even though in the other half of these states funding agencies supporting Open Access are present. By contrast, 70% of these Asian states have Open Access policies promulgated on either institutional or university levels, whereas in only 5 countries no policies of that type have been found to be present. This indicates a proactive stance of academic and research institutions in regard to the promotion of Open Access primarily through repositories for theses and dissertations, journal articles and other local and other language content.

By Pablo Markin


The full-length original  blog article and additional resources can be found at OpenScience blog.

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